Ulbricht Sphere

Also known as an Integrating sphere. A hollow sphere coated internally with a white diffusing material and openings for an incident beam, a specimen, and detector. The sphere is used to measuring the diffuse reflectance or transmittance of objects.

Ultraviolet (UV)

Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than visible light and longer than X-rays, and frequencies higher than visible light and less than X-rays. It has the range of wavelengths from 10 nm to 400 nm, where 1 nm = 1 × 10 9 m MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagCart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqipu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGymaiaaykW7caqGUbGaaeyBaiabg2da9iaaigdacqGHxdaTcaaIXaGaaGimamaaCaaaleqabaGaeyOeI0IaaGyoaaaakiaab2gaaaa@4220@ , and frequencies between 0.75 × 10 15 Hz to  30 × 10 15 Hz MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagCart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqipu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=xfr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaGaaGimaiaac6cacaaI3aGaaGynaiabgEna0kaaigdacaaIWaWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaGaaGynaaaakiaaykW7caqGibGaaeOEaiaabccacaqG0bGaae4BaiaabccacaaIZaGaaGimaiabgEna0kaaigdacaaIWaWaaWbaaSqabeaacaaIXaGaaGynaaaakiaaykW7caqGibGaaeOEaaaa@4E87@ , where 1 Hz (one hertz) is a one cycle per second.

Unpolarized light

Light in which the electric field vector is oriented in a random, unpredictable fashion.

To learn more about unpolarized light, click on the link to the Cross Polarization pamphlet.